A team of American astrophysicists has made the most accurate measurement of the total amount of matter in the universe ever, which is a long-term mystery of the universe.
The answer published in the Astrophysical Journal on Monday is that matter accounts for 31.5% of the total matter and energy that make up the universe, or 1.3%.
The remaining 68.5% is dark energy, which is a mysterious force that accelerates the expansion of the universe over time. It was first determined by observations of distant supernovae in the late 1990s.
In other words, this means that the total amount of matter in the observable universe is equivalent to 66 billion billion times the mass of the sun, an astrophysicist at the University of California, Riverside, Mohamed Abdullah told the law. Xinshe.
Most of it (80%) is called dark matter. Its nature is unclear, but it may be composed of some subatomic particles that have not yet been discovered.
The latest measurements are in good agreement with those previously found by other teams using different cosmic technologies, such as measuring temperature fluctuations in the low-energy radiation left over from the “Big Bang”.
The co-author of the study, UCR Professor Gillian Wilson, told AFP: “This is a long process. Over the course of 100 years, we have gradually become more and more precise.”
She added: “It’s cool to be able to make such basic measurements of the universe without leaving the earth.”
So, how do you accurately measure the universe?
The team has honed a 90-year-old technology that involves observing how galaxies move inside galaxy clusters, which are large systems containing thousands of galaxies.
These observations tell them how strong the gravity of each galaxy cluster is, and then they can calculate its total mass.
The fate of the universe
Wilson explained that, in fact, their technology was originally developed by the pioneering astronomer Fritz Zwicky, who was the first person in the 1930s to suspect dark matter in galaxy clusters.
He noticed that the total gravitational mass of the galaxies observed in the nearby comatose galaxy cluster was not enough to prevent these galaxies from flying away from each other, and realized that there must be some other invisible matter.
The UCR team’s research received funding from the National Science Foundation and NASA. They perfected Zwicky’s technology and developed a tool they called GalWeight, which can more accurately determine which galaxies belong to a given galaxy and which ones do not. A certain galaxy.
They applied the tool to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the most detailed three-dimensional map of the universe currently available to measure the mass of 1,800 galaxy clusters and create a catalog.
Finally, they compared the number of clusters observed per unit volume in their catalog with a series of computer simulations, each of which assigned a different value to the universe as a whole.
There are too few simulated clusters with less material, and too many simulated clusters with more material.
They found that “Goldilocks” were just right.
She added: “In addition, “the total amount of dark matter and dark energy tells us the fate of the universe.” The current scientific consensus is that we are moving towards the “great freezing point”, and the distance between galaxies is getting farther and farther. The stars in the galaxy eventually ran out of fuel.
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