Astrophysicists released the largest 3D map ever released on Monday, which is the result of an analysis of more than 4 million galaxies and ultra-bright, energetic quasars.
Will Percival of the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, said the efforts of hundreds of scientists from more than 30 institutions around the world have produced “a complete story of the expansion of the universe.”
He said in a statement that in a project launched more than two decades ago, researchers conducted “the widest and most accurate historical measurement of the expansion of the universe in history.”
The map is based on the latest observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which is called the “Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey” (eBOSS), and its data comes from an optical telescope in New Mexico for six years.
The baby universe after the Big Bang is relatively well-known through extensive theoretical models and observations of the cosmic microwave background, which is the electromagnetic radiation of the newborn universe.
The study of galaxies and distance measurements also helps to better understand the multi-billion-year expansion of the universe.
But Kyle Dawson of the University of Utah, who released the map on Monday, said that the researchers solved the “troubling gap in the mid–11 billion year.”
He said: “Through five years of continuous observation, we have worked hard to fill this gap, and we are using this information to provide the most important progress in cosmology over the past decade.”
Jean-Paul Kneib, an astrophysicist at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, founded eBOSS in 2012. He said the goal is to produce “the most complete 3D map of the universe in the entire universe. “.
For the first time, researchers used “celestial bodies that indicate the distribution of objects in the distant universe, that is, galaxies that actively form stars and quasars.”
The matter and interstitial filaments shown on the map more accurately define the structure of the universe since the beginning of the universe (only 380,000 years ago).
For the part of the map related to the universe 6 billion years ago, the researchers observed the oldest and reddest galaxies.
In more distant times, they focused on the youngest galaxy-the blue galaxy. To go one step further, they used quasars, the supermassive black holes of these quasars are very luminous.
The map shows that the expansion of the universe began to accelerate at some point, and has continued to accelerate ever since.
The researchers said that this seems to be due to the existence of dark energy, an invisible element that fits Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, but its origin is unclear.
Astrophysicists have known for years that the universe is expanding, but have been unable to accurately measure the rate of expansion.
Comparison of eBOSS observations with early studies in the early universe shows that there are differences in estimates of expansion rates.
The currently accepted rate is called the “Hubble Constant” and is 10% slower than the value calculated based on the distance between the closest galaxies to us.
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